Oil Laboratory Risk Factors and Protective Measures
The oil laboratories are different from the general chemical laboratories. The operators have been exposed to a large number of oil samples and chemical reagents for a long period of time. The vast majority of them are toxic, flammable and explosive. Fires, explosions and explosions occur when the operations are slightly improper. Possible accidents such as poisoning. Therefore, standard management of oil laboratory safety must be combined with the characteristics of the oil laboratory to avoid accidents.
Oil Laboratory Features
1 Highly professional oil testing
Unlike oil chemistry laboratories and chemical specialty laboratories, it covers the two major parts of physical and chemical properties testing and oil condition monitoring. Therefore, various types of flammable and explosive gases and reagents are used, and the potential safety hazards are also relatively complicated. .
2 Analysis project
At present, oil laboratories include moisture, viscosity, density, water separation, flash point, acid value, pour point, condensation point, contamination degree, elemental analysis, and many other tests. The types of instruments used are various, and the water includes distillation. Method and trace moisture determination two types.
3 more harmful gases
The flash point and moisture (distillation method) of oil products are prone to produce more toxic and harmful gases during the detection process. The detection items such as the degree of contamination must be exposed to reagents such as petroleum ether, which is likely to cause harm to the human body.
Dangerous chemicals and protective measures commonly used in oil laboratories
There are three types of oil laboratories often encountered: compressed gas and liquefied gas, flammable gases and corrosives.
Oil laboratories use some gases such as hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, acetylene, etc. during various analyses. Most laboratories use gas cylinders to meet the analysis needs. There are a lot of unsafe factors in the use of gas cylinders. Only the use of gas cylinders in a safe manner can prevent accidents.
1 Compressed gas and liquefied gas
Compressed gas and liquefied gas are potentially unsafe factors and are flammable and explosive. Currently used in oil laboratories are open flash point liquefied gas cylinders and contamination tester compressed air.
The liquefied gas cylinders must be erected and fixed. They must be kept away from heat and fire. They must not be exposed to the sun. They should be covered with a cylinder cap and gently handled to prevent accidental throwing, knocking, rolling, or violent shocks. explosion. Must strictly observe the operating procedures when using, otherwise it may cause an explosion.
Cylinder gas can not be completely exhausted, combustible gas should be retained 0.2MPa-0.3MPa, cylinders should be regularly tested to prevent leakage.
2 Flammable liquids
Flammable liquids are highly volatile and can burn when exposed to an open flame. The flammable liquids commonly used in oil laboratories include ethanol, petroleum ether, and solvent gasoline.
All flammable gases should be stored in a low-temperature and ventilated place. Storage temperature should not be higher than 25°C, keep away from fire, heat source, and light protection. Do not store together with oxidants. Use of tools that easily generate static sparks is prohibited.
When the concentration in the air exceeds the standard, it is necessary to wear a self-absorbing filter type respirator mask. When operating, wear special protective glasses; when using hands, wear latex gloves.
3 Corrosion products
Corrosion products include liquids and solids. Commonly used corrosion products in oil laboratories include hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide.
Hydrochloric acid gas is irritating to the eyes and mucous membranes, so it is necessary to complete the operation in a fume hood. If inhaled hydrochloric acid gas can inhale a small amount of mixed vapors of alcohol and ether to detoxify.
The neutralizer in the acid value meter contains sodium hydroxide, which can easily cause burns. In case of accidental contact, rinse with plenty of water, rinse with diluted acetic acid, and rinse with water. If the eye is exposed to a chemical burn, rinse immediately with a bottle of water (do not let the water flow straight through the eye and do not rub it). After washing, if alkali burns, rinse with 2% boric acid.
Gas cylinders use matters needing attention
(1)Gas cylinders must be stored in separate branches. They should be filled with gas cylinders that come into contact with each other and cause combustion and explosion gases. They must not be stored together or be mixed with other flammable and explosive materials. They should be kept securely when erected. To ensure that cylinders will not be moved or dumped due to natural disasters.
(2) Gas cylinders should normally be placed in a cool, dry, private room away from heat. Open flame is strictly forbidden, and the ambient temperature does not exceed 35°C.
(3) Cylinder caps and rubber waistbands should be worn when moving cylinders to protect them from accidental rotation and reduce collisions. Avoid explosions caused by impact.
(4) When installing the pressure reducing valve, check whether the pressure reducing valve matches with the gas cylinder, and then remove the dust and other dirt from the outlet port of the high pressure gas cylinder, the pressure reducing valve interface, and the pipeline (to prevent clogging). Screws are tightened during installation to prevent leakage.
(5) When the gas cylinder is opened, one should stand on the side of the outlet of the cylinder to prevent air jets from injuring the human body. When you use, you should first turn the switch valve, and then open the pressure reducer; when it is used up, close the switch valve first and then release the remaining air, then close the pressure reducing valve; when switching the cylinder and the pressure reducing valve, it must be slow to avoid the gas flow rate being too high. Fast, static sparks are generated, causing explosions.
(6) The gas in the cylinder must not be completely exhausted, and the internal residual pressure of 0.05 MPa or more must be maintained. The combustible gas should be maintained at 0.2 MPa to 0.3 MPa. The hydrogen should retain a higher pressure in order to prepare the sample for inflator testing and Prevent the mixing of other gases or impurities and cause accidents.
(7) Gas cylinders that tend to polymerize, such as acetylene, should be used within the shelf life.
(8) When the cylinder catches fire, a large amount of cold water should be poured on the cylinder, or the cylinder can be put into water to cool it.
(9) Cylinders must be inspected periodically. Gas cylinders for storing general gases are inspected once every three years. Storage of inert gas
Cylinders are inspected every five years; cylinders that store corrosive gases are tested every two years.